Everything You Need To Know About The Thyroid Gland

We can view the thyroid gland as a butterfly-shaped endocrine gland positioned in the neck’s front, which releases hormones to the bloodstream to control the rate of your metabolism.

It composes its tissues of two specific cells, and that is the parafollicular and follicular. It releases three types of hormones from it, that regulate various essential functions in the body.

The most crucial role is to control your heart rate, breathing, weight, temperature of your body, muscle strength, cholesterol levels, menstrual cycles, nervous system control, and many others.

The size of it is around 2 inches long and sometimes we call it the Adam’s apple. Usually, the size of the thyroid gland is noticeably larger in men than it is in women.

However, the released hormones from it are called the Triiodothyronine as T3, the Thyroxine as T4, and a small amount of calcitonin. But T3 and T4 are most important for controlling various functions in the body.

The function of the thyroid

Since we know that the primary purpose of it is realizing the necessary hormones to the bloodstream after production. The primary hormone T3 and T4 are produced by consuming iodine from iodine enriched food.

It’s also mandatory to maintain the standard level of hormone because more or fewer hormones rather than the standard level can affect the functions of your body’s organs.

Here, the pituitary gland which is located at the hypothalamus controls T3 and T4 levels by realizing Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH).

Imbalance hormones

Since it is mandatory to maintain the level of T3 and T4 hormones in the body if you don’t various physical problems may happen because of the imbalance of hormones. It categorizes these problems into two, such as hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism.


If the thyroid hormones produced more than the standard level in the body, then the phenomenon is called hyperthyroidism. Various problems will appear, which are mentioned below:

  • Weight loss/diarrhea
  • Heart rate may faster than usual
  • Failed to tolerate heat
  • Scant menstrual periods
  • Muscle weakness
  • Insomnia


If the thyroid hormones produced are lower than the standard level by the thyroid gland, then the phenomenon is called hypothyroidism. The problem for hypothyroidism mentioned below:

  • Overweight
  • Slower the heart rate
  • Dry, coarse hair and skin
  • Forgetfulness
  • Irregular menstrual periods
  • Failed to tolerate cold
  • Hoarse voice

Symptoms for thyroid gland hormone problem

Nowadays, usually these problems are affecting many people, and because of the lack of proper knowledge, they do not detect these problems.

The symptoms for hyperthyroidism problem:

  • Anxiety
  • Irritability
  • Hyperactivity and nervousness,
  • Hand trembling or shaking
  • Sweating for high temperatures
  • Hair loss
  • Light menstrual periods

The symptoms for Hypothyroidism problem:

  • Facing trouble during sleep
  • Tiredness
  • Uninterested in concentrating the mind
  • Drying hair and skin
  • Distress
  • Feeling cold
  • Heavy/ intermittent periods
  • Muscle and joint pain



As part of drugs, there are many thyroid glandular supplements available in the market, patients can use to control this problem.

Radiation therapy:

It also another most recognized way to mitigate the hormonal problems of the thyroid gland. Radiation therapy is also useful and functional for those people who have a cancer-related problem in neck or head, leukemia, or lymphoma. Because these therapies control the production of hormones from the thyroid.


Surgical treatment is generally performed when the medication or radiation therapy is not suitable to control the hormone level. But after the surgical operation, patients should use thyroid glandular supplements to fulfill the T3 and T4 demand in the body

Hopefully, the above-described information will help you learn about the thyroid gland.

Categorized as Health

By Finn

Finn Oliver Edwards: Finn, a pediatric nurse, shares child health tips, parenting advice, and preventive measures for common childhood illnesses.